The Concepts of a 4-20mA current Loop

4-20mA Current loops are widely used to transmit process variable data such as temperature, pressure, flow rate, level, consistency, speed, etc between the process controllers and the field devices. Transmitters convert these process signals to 4-20mA DC for the purpose of transmitting the signal. This signal can be transmitted to a long distance with little … Read more

Top 10 DCS Companies in the world

Distributed Control Systems (DCS) is being used to control a production plant or a process for over 40 years now. They were commercialized with the launch of TDC 2000 by Honeywell and CENTUM systems by Yokohama. Distributed control systems have been evolving since then. Here is the list of the top 10 leading players in … Read more

Top 10 Industrial Automation companies in the world

Industrial automation and robotics enable large-scale manufacturing at a lower cost. It enables an increase in productivity and product quality. There are many industrial automation service providers around the globe. Here is the list of the top 10 industrial automation companies in the world. Top 10 Industrial Automation companies Siemens AG – Germany ABB – … Read more

Difference between PLC and DCS

In the world of industrial automation, Programmable logic controllers (PLC) and Distributed Control Systems (DCS) are used to control or automate a process or a machine. They monitor the field signals and operator inputs and make decisions based on how they are programmed. Here you can understand the difference between PLC and DCS. What is … Read more

Difference between NPN and PNP transistors | NPN vs PNP Transistor

The bipolar junction transistors exist as NPN and PNP types. This article intents to help you understand the difference between these two types and how to use them in a circuit. Also, this will be helpful to automation engineers and instrumentation engineers in understanding 3 wire sensor connections. Transistors are made by combining two types … Read more

Types of Proximity sensors and their applications

Proximity sensors are used to detect the presence of an object without any direct contact. It is used as an alternative to the limit switches. There are various types of proximity sensors available in the market. Their invention led to a revolution in the field of industrial automation and robotics. Proximity switches were developed by Wilfried … Read more

Difference between NO and NC

In every control circuits and automation systems, logic is developed based on the open or closed state of switches, sensors or relays. Hence it is mandatory to know the concept behind NO/NC. Normally open(NO) and Normally closed (NC) are terms used to define the states of switches, sensors or relay contacts under when its coil … Read more

Digital I/O and Analog I/O

Automation has become the backbone of almost all industries worldwide. Digital IO and analog IO are the most basic terms of any PLC/DCS based control and microcontroller-based applications. A PLC collects data from the field process it as pre-programmed and produces one or more outputs. The data that is collected from the field is considered … Read more

PLC, DCS, RTU, SCADA and PAC Systems

PLC – Programmable Logic Controller Programmable logic controllers are electronic devices used to control a process. It consists of CPU; Input and output devices, power supply, communication and redundancy units. PLCs are preprogrammed based on their application and put into operation. A PLC accepts inputs from the field, process the input based on the programming … Read more