What are the different faults occurring in the overhead transmission lines?

What are the different faults occurring in the overhead transmission lines?

1.       Single line to ground fault.

2.       Line to line fault.

3.       Double line to ground fault.

4.       Line to line to line fault (Three phases are short-circuited)

5.       Three line to ground fault. (more…)

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What is a short circuit?

A short circuit is a situation in which two or more different lines (having different voltage levels/ different phase/ different terminals) come in contact and finally leads to the flow…

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Working of Diode rectifiers (Uncontrolled rectifiers)


Circuits that are used to convert the Alternating Current (AC) input power into a Direct Current (DC) output power is known as rectifier circuits. Rectifiers are found in almost all equipment, from a low voltage battery charger to High Voltage DC transmission systems. Basically, rectifiers are classified into Controlled rectifiers and uncontrolled rectifiers. In controlled rectifiers, semiconductor switches such as thyristors, BJTs, MOSFETs, IGBT etc are used. The output parameters of a controlled rectifier can be easily controlled with the help of semiconductor switches. In this article only the uncontrolled rectifiers are discussed. As the name indicates these rectifiers cannot be controlled externally. Controlled rectifiers are made up of a few diodes and conditioning elements such as capacitors.


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Comparision of conventional energy resources

Conventional energy is obtained from the conventional energy resources such as coal, diesel, gas and nucleus. These are non-renewable resources and may exhaust in few decades if consumed at the current rate. The burning of fossil fuels produces harmful gases such as nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur-di-oxide etc and pollutes the environment. The comparison of various factors of power production from the conventional resources is listed below. (more…)

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How does a LCD work?

LCDs are not new to us since we always use devices made up of Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs) like computers, digital watches and also DVD and CD players. The invention of LCD was has changed the world of electronics from bigger CRTs to portable tablets.


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Metal halide (MH) lamp

Metal halide (MH) lamp provides high efficiency, long service life and excellent colour rendition. It consists of an arc tube enclosed in a glass chamber made up of borosilicate glass. Arc tube is also called as discharge tube or “burner”. The arc tube consists of argon gas, mercury and metal salts such as sodium iodide.  They operate at higher temperatures and pressures.

Ballast is used to supply a high starting voltage. The ballast also regulates the lamp starting current and lamp operating current. (more…)

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How refrigerators work?

Modern fridges are available in various sizes with different features incorporated by the manufacturers. Apart from these features the basic principle of refrigeration of course remains the same. The method of deployment hasn’t changed much since from the aforementioned Frigidaire unit in 1923.


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